China

National name: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
Languages: Standard Chinese (Mandarin/Putonghua), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages note: Mongolian is official in Nei Mongol, Uighur is official in Xinjiang Uygur, and Tibetan is official in Xizang (Tibet)
Ethnicity: Han Chinese 91.5%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.5%
National Holiday: Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China, October 1
Religions: Officially atheist; Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Christian 3%–4%, Muslim 1%–2% (2002 est.)
Literacy rate: 92.2% (2011 est.)
President: Xi Jinping (2013)
Prime Minister: Wen Jiabao (2003)
Capital: Beijing
Largest city: Shanghai
Currency: Yuan/Renminbi
Economic summary

GDP/PPP (2011 est.): $11.29 trillion; per capita $8,400. Real growth rate: 9.2% (official data). Inflation: 5.4%. Unemployment: 6.5% official registered unemployment in urban areas; substantial unemployment and underemployment in rural areas. Arable land: 14.86%. Agriculture: rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, apples, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish. Labor force: 795.5 million (2011); agriculture 10.2%, industry 46.9%, services 43% (2010 est.). Industries: mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products, including footwear, toys, and electronics; food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships, and aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, satellites. Natural resources: coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest). Exports: $1.898 trillion (2011 est.): machinery and equipment, plastics, optical and medical equipment, iron and steel. Imports: $1.743 trillion (2011 est.): machinery and equipment, oil and mineral fuels, plastics, optical and medical equipment, organic chemicals, iron and steel. Major trading partners: U.S., Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Germany, Australia (2010).

Communications

Telephones: main lines in use: 294.383 million (2011); mobile cellular: 859 million (2011). Broadcast media: all broadcast media are owned by, or affiliated with, the Communist Party of China or a government agency; no privately-owned television or radio stations with state-run Chinese Central TV, provincial, and municipal stations offering more than 2,000 channels; the Central Propaganda Department lists subjects that are off limits to domestic broadcast media with the government maintaining authority to approve all programming; foreign-made TV programs must be approved prior to broadcast (2008). Internet hosts: 19.772 million (2011). Internet users: 389 million (2011).

Transportation

Railways: total: 86,000 (2011). Highways: total: 3,860,800 km; paved: 3,056,300 km (with at least 65,000 km of expressways) ; unpaved: 804,500 km (2011). Waterways: 110,000 km (2010). Ports and harbors: Dalian, Guangzhou, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Tianjin . Airports: 502 (2011 est.).

Geography

The greater part of the country is mountainous. Its principal ranges are the Tien Shan, the Kunlun chain, and the Trans-Himalaya. In the southwest is Tibet, which China annexed in 1950. The Gobi Desert lies to the north. China proper consists of three great river systems: the Yellow River (Huang He), 2,109 mi (5,464 km) long; the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang), the third-longest river in the world at 2,432 mi (6,300 km); and the Pearl River (Zhu Jiang), 848 mi (2,197 km) long.

Government

Communist state.